Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

TCP/IP – As we know that the TCP/IP is the communication protocol for communication between computers on the Internet.

TCP and IP are the Two part of communication.

IP- It provides communication between hosts on different kinds of networks . This protocol is unreliable with connection less.Each packet is independent of any other packet. It is unreliable because there is no guarantee that a packet gets delivered.

IP Address-: It tell a particular address. It providing t a number to every host on a network .IP is a specifies a unique 32-bit number . This number known as the internet protocol address. Each packet sent across the internet contains the IP address of the source of the packet and the IP address of its destination.
The IP address has a two parts:

prefix which identifies the physical network.A unique prefix is
needed for each network in an internet

Suffix which identifies a computer on the network

IP Address Classes-:The first 4 bits of an IP address determine the class of the network. The class specifies how many of the remaining bits belong to the prefix and to the suffix.The first 3 classes, A, B and C, are the primary network classes.

Netmasks-: It is used to identify who is the Network Id and who is  the
Host Id. By the help of a logical bit-wise and  of the IP address and the netmask.  as like

  • A networks the netmask is always
  • for class B networks it is
  • Class c networks the netmask is

Subnet Address-:Every host are necessary to support subnet addressing. Although the IP address classes are the convention,IP addresses are typically subnetted to smaller address sets that do not match any  class system.

The suffix bits are divided into a host and a subnet id. It makes sense for class A and B networks, since no one attaches as many hosts to these networks as is allowed. Although to subnet how many bits to use for the subnet id is determined by the local network administrator of each network.

Directed Broadcast Address-:  IP address define the broadcast address of every physical network in the host part of address.Both the id must be valid on the network. When a data packet sent to any network  a single copy travel to the network and after the packet is sent to every host on these network.

2 IP Routing-: Every  IP datagram (data divided into small packets) go to  from its source to its destination It means data are routing .Every hosts and routers have  an internet contain IP address.
The destination have also IP address in the IP header. Before reaching data his destination Routing table entries are created when TCP/IP initialises. The entries can be updated manually by a network administrator  Routing table providing all information that how to communicate with remote networks and hosts.
When IP receives datagram in  a packet from a higher-level protocol.The routing table is searched for the route which is the near match to the destination IP address. as like

  •  (host route) A route that matches the destination IP address.
  •  (network route)A route that matches the network ID of the destination IP address .
  • The default route(both route are not available )


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